Antimicrobial Resistance #2 – Should we ban the use of antibiotics for flu treatment?


Irene Drymiotou, Andreani Baytelman and Constantinos P. Constantinou


University of Cyprus

The aim of this activity is to introduce students to sustained inquiry by training argumentation as a scientific practice. It provides students with the opportunity to reflect on the available information and prompts them to create possible solutions for the issue of AMR. Initially, there is an introduction to a simple definition of an argument, the components of an argument, the identification of an argument, and how to formulate a strong argument. After practising formulating arguments based on a rubric, the students get prepared to organise a debate on the topic: We should ban the use of antibiotics for flu treatment. Do you agree or disagree?


  • 12
  • 13
  • 14
  • 15


  • Antimicrobial resistance


  • Between 2-5 hours

Students’ resources

The students use the scoring table below to form a good/strong argument while revisiting the information retrieved from Activity 1 in the AMR toolkit and receive formative feedback from their peers and the teacher for revision.

Criterion Description of the criterion Argument (example)Score 
1No response/Claim without justificationI prefer bottled water0
2Justification without dataI prefer bottled water because I like it1
3Valid justification supported by simple reasoning according to data I prefer bottled water because I can find it at the supermarket2
4Valid justification supported by strong reasoning according to data I prefer bottled water because the chlorine has been removed and this is good for my health3

Teachers’ resources

What is an argument? Some definitions are:

  • A reason or set of reasons that somebody uses to show that something is true or correct (Oxford Dictionary)
  • Arguments are backed by reasons that are supported by evidence
  • Claim – Evidence – Reasoning (CER)

Instructions on how to prepare the students for the debate:

  • Decide which stakeholders are FOR and AGAINST the proposition.
  • Each group prepares a document presenting the stakeholders’ position with arguments and counterarguments. The table below can be used as a template to guide this activity and this is an example of a debate.
Your Claim: 

An alternative Claim / Counterargument: 

Your Evidence: 

Your Challenge to the Alternative Claim/ What can reject this alternative claim?:
Your Justification of the Evidence:  

Activity: My dad is an alien!

The little girl in the video claims that her dad is an alien.

  • What does she list as ‘evidence’?
  • What is her reasoning? Why are those pieces of evidence reasonable to the girl?
  • Write a counter claim for her dad being an alien.
  • What rebuttals can you provide for each piece of the girl’s evidence that her dad is an alien?
  • Why is it reasonable that her dad is NOT an alien?
  • Why would she think that he is?